Resource Library

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The following annotated resources were carefully selected by the Financial Inclusion 2020 team. We believe these resources provide an excellent overview of the state of financial inclusion today, both broadly and in respect to our five key action areas. Complementary to our Roadmap to Inclusion, we hope that this tool enhances learning and knowledge sharing, enabling you to delve deeper into key topics. This resource library will continue to grow, so we invite you to share your favorite resources with us. Please help us identify your top resources on financial inclusion by submitting them via the form at the bottom of this page.

Smart Campaign Tools
Center for Financial Inclusion at Accion
These online tools help microfinance institutions uphold best practices and principles in client protection. Here, a microfinance institution (MFI) can peruse toolkits, take a survey about its use of client protection tools, or read "Smart Notes" on key topics in client protection. A must read for MFIs on how to maintain fair and appropriate practices.

Global Standard-Setting Bodies and Financial Inclusion for the Poor: Toward Proportionate Standards and Guidance (October 2011)
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Aims to raise awareness and frame issues to inform the ongoing work of five standard-setting bodies (SSBs): the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems, the Financial Action Task Force, the International Association of Insurance Supervisors, and the International Association of Deposit Insurers. Explores three themes for SSBs to consider: the risk of financial exclusion affecting financial integrity and security; the changing nature of risks due to the inclusion of new customers and the provision of new products; and the importance of country context.

G20 HIGH-LEVEL PRINCIPLES ON FINANCIAL CONSUMER PROTECTION (October 2011)
OECD
These common principles on consumer protection were developed by the Task Force on Financial Consumer Protection of the OECD Committee on Financial Markets and endorsed by G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors on October 2011. A high-level overview of necessary client protection principles.

Road Map for the Microfinance Industry: Focusing on Responsible and Client-Centered Microfinance (January 2012)
Microfinance CEO Working Group
This note describes the formation and shared values of the Microfinance CEO Working Group,  including industry leadership from Accion, FINCA, Freedom From Hunger, Grameen Foundation, Opportunity International, Pro Mujer, VisionFund, and Women's World Banking. Highlights three key initiatives for advancing industry standards. A good benchmark for other CEOs within the microfinance industry.

Smart Microinsurance - An Overview for Microfinance Institutions on Incorporating Client Protection Practices into Microinsurance (2012)
Smart Campaign, Microinsurance Network
This report highlights the importance of client protection polices in microinsurance. This includes a set of social performance indicators, guidelines for product design and partnerships, and key client protection guidelines for the microinsurance process. Targeted at MFIs that serve as intermediaries between external insurance companies, these guidelines can also be applied to other microinsurance providers.

Client Protection: A Three-Legged Stool? (April 2012)
OECD
Analistas Financieros Internacionales
Authors: Virginia González Pérez, Verónica López Sabater
This report identifies key stakeholders that make up the three-legged stool of client protection: authority, industry and clients. It proposes that client protection is not possible unless all three stakeholders are equally engaged. Client Protection principles, standards and practices should be fully applied by providers, with utmost transparency. The authority should exercise its role as provider of regulation, institutional capacity, supervision and financial education of clients.

Responsible Finance: Putting Principles to Work (September 2011)
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Authors: Kate McKee, Estelle Lahaye, Antonique Koning
This report insists that responsible finance requires a double bottom line, where social and financial commitments work in unison to improve the lives of poor clients and increase profitability. Responsible finance, it suggests, is mutually reinforced by three client protection strategies: industry self-regulation, government regulation and supervision, and improved consumer capability. In a true state of responsible finance, client benefits are matched with long-term viability of financial service providers.

Consumer Protection: Leveling the Playing Field in Financial Inclusion
(January 2010)
Alliance for Financial Inclusion
Examines the role of consumer protection, expressing that it levels the  playing field between consumers and providers of financial services. Customers, it states, have less information about their financial transactions than the institutions providing the product or service, which can lead to unreasonably high interest rates, the customer’s lack of understanding about financial options, and insufficient avenues for redress. In the past, some providers have abused their information privilege at the expense of consumers.  (Adapted from executive summary)

Good Practices for Financial Consumer Protection
(June 2012)
World Bank
Diagnostic tool based on a compilation of the most frequently used successful practices in several sectors, including banking, securities, insurance, and non-bank credit institutions. Tested in 18 countries and the building on several years of work, the guidelines aim to help ensure that consumers receive information that allows them to make informed decisions, are not subject to unfair or deceptive practices, and have access to effective recourse mechanisms.  

Diagnostic Reviews on Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy
World Bank
Systematic analysis of the legal, regulatory, and institutional frameworks for consumer protection in financial services and financial education.  Country level analysis of practices as compared to the World Bank Good Practices, including recommendations. 

Implementing Consumer Protection in Emerging Markets and Developing Economies: A Technical Guide for Bank Supervisors (August 2013)
CGAP
Author: Denise Dias

Bank supervisors have a vital role to play in ensuring that regulations help improve consumer protection practices by leveraging their existing supervisory procedures and resources, statuary mandates, power, and policy goals, such as financial inclusion and stability. Related to this is the large range of players and products they cover in their supervision, including deposits, credit, and, in some cases, payments and nonbank providers. This guide synthesizes information from research in 44 countries.

Making Recourse Work for Base-of-the-Pyramid Financial Consumers (December 2013)
CGAP
Authors: Meghan Chapman and Rafael Mazer
Explores innovative ways for policy makers and providers in lower income countries to raise awareness and improve access to recourse mechanisms, tailor recourse to suit new products and delivery channels, and proactively use recourse data to address systematic problems in base of the pyramid markets.

 

General Principles for Credit Reporting (September 2011)
World Bank
Prepared by a taskforce coordinated by the World Bank, provides guiding principles for operating in the credit reporting industry related to data (security and privacy), governance and risk management, legal and regulatory frameworks, and cross-border data flows.

Credit Reporting Knowledge Guide (December 2013)
IFC/World Bank
This second edition of best practices looks at recent developments in global credit reporting, highlighting the following: universal standards for credit reporting; credit reporting for micro, small, and medium enterprises; and the role of credit reporting in the evolving responsible finance space. Includes case studies on the development of credit reporting in five countries.

Credit Reporting at the Base of the Pyramid: Key Issues and Success Factors (2011)
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor/IFC
Authors: Lyman, Timothy; Lythgoe, Tony; Miller, Margaret; Reille, Xavier; Sankaranarayan, Shalini

This report makes a compelling case for credit reporting at the base of the pyramid. It evaluates the microlending market and then discusses credit reporting at the base of the pyramid through the following issues: credit bureaus, credit registries, and MFI-specific systems for exchanging client information.

A New Pathway to Financial Inclusion: Alternative Data, Credit Building, and Responsible Lending in the Wake of the Great Recession (June 2012)
PERC
Authors: Michael A. Turner, Ph.D., Robin Varghese, Ph.D., Patrick Walker, M.A., Sukanya Chaudhuri, PhD.
This report argues for the use of alternative (non-financial) and positive data. This will lead to "fully" reported financial data, to improve the comprehensive reporting of credit histories. This means that both on-time and late payments are recorded. PERC undertook a study where TransUnion and Equifax utilized alternative data, to create fully reported histories. It found that those with serious past delinquencies benefited from alternative data.

Credit Impacts of More Comprehensive Credit Reporting in Australia and New Zealand* (August 2012)
PERC, Dun & Bradstreet
Authors: Michael A. Turner, Ph.D., Patrick D. Walker, M.A., Sukanya Chaudhuri, Ph.D., Joseph Duncan, Ph.D., Robin Varghese, Ph.D.
This report details the impacts of more comprehensive credit reporting in Australia and New Zealand. Using credit data from 1.8 million Australians, this report suggests that credit reporting reform in Australia and New Zealand will result in the following: an increase in lending to the private sector, benefits to lenders due to the inclusion of positive data, and that non-financial account data is important to understanding credit risk. These findings are said to be consistent with international data.

*See also Financial Inclusion through Credit Reporting: Hurdles and Solutions, for a better understanding of comprehensive credit reporting.

Applying Behavioral Economics to Improve Microsavings Outcomes (February 2014)
Ideas42, Grameen Foundation
Authors: Alexandra Fiorillo, Louis Potok, and Josh Wright
Findings from a microsavings pilot project with CARD Bank in the Philippines, utilizing behavioral design levers, including goal-setting, the perception of a commitment, implementation intention, and personalization of the experience. This pilot addressed the access-usage gap, as many CARD clients signed up for savings accounts that were then left dormant. Participants in the treatment group made larger opening deposits, transacted more frequently (in smaller amounts), and built higher savings balances.

Portfolios of the Poor (2009)
Ford Foundation, Gates Foundation, Financial Access Initiative
Authors: Daryl Collins, Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford, Orlanda Ruthven
A financial inclusion classic.  Demonstrates that the poor save, manage complex financial lives, and find solutions to manage unexpected shocks. Data was compiled through year-long interviews with poor villagers in Bangladesh, India, and South Africa, using a method of "financial diaries" or records that closely track how households manage money.

The Financial Behavior of Rural Residents (March 2012)
Center for Financial lnclusion
Author: Jacqueline Urquizo

Summarizes the results of market research conducted in 2009–2010 in five countries—Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Peru—to learn about financial behavior and use of financial services among rural residents. Valuable insights on product design for rural populations.
(RURAL)

Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much*
Authors: Sendhil Mullainathan, Eldar Shafir
Leading behavioral economists discuss the concept of scarcity and how individuals behave in times of scarcity (whether that be scarcity of money, time, etc.). It suggests that financial services can both help keep people from falling into a scarcity mindset and can keep people from making poor decisions while in a scarcity mindset. This is a must read for product designers and financial capability implementers. (Adapted from a review by Sonja E. Kelly)

*See also Alex Counts’ insightful 2 part review of Scarcity and its implications for financial services for the poor.

Human-Centered Design Toolkit (2009)
IDEO, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
This toolkit was designed by a design thinking consulting firm for NGOs and social enterprises that work in developing communities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This step by step toolkit explains the iterative process of human centered design, helps to build deep listening skills, and promotes the skills to rapidly prototype and test new ideas. This can be especially useful for market research, product design, and evaluation of programs.

The Pursuit of Complete Financial Inclusion: The KGFS Model in India (May 2012)
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor, IFMR Trust
Authors: Bindu Ananth, Greg Chen, Stephen Rasmussen

This publication describes the Kshetriya Gramin Financial Services (KGFS) operating model in India, which includes a village and household mapping exercise. This innovative model trains front-line staff as “wealth managers” who conduct detailed interviews to diagnose financial needs and offer advice. Wealth managers then propose a customized mix of financial products that address the unique needs of each household, which includes savings, credit, and insurance. They also utilize sophisticated analytics of local economic data. Discusses the client response so far, reviews how far the financial viability of the model has progressed, and explores the applicability of KGFS principles to contexts beyond India.

Pathways Towards Greater Impact: Better Microinsurance Models, Products and Processes for MFIs (November 2012)
Microinsurance Innovation Facility, ILO
Authors: Churchill, C., Dalal, A. & Ling, J.

This paper is based upon a survey of 450 microfinance institutions (MFIs) and examines the challenges they face in providing microinsurance to low-income clients and microenterprises. It provides recommendations for MFIs on how to improve their insurance offerings, explains institutional models and product evolution, suggests methods for performance monitoring, and describes ways to enhance operational processes. Recommended for MFIs interested in learning more about opportunities to provide insurance.

A Structured Approach to Understanding the Financial Service Needs of the Poor in Mexico (May 2012)
CGAP
Authors: Xavier Faz, Paul Breloff

Recognizing that a deeper understanding of demand is necessary for designing more sustainable and appropriate financial products, this provides a starting point for client segmentation based on a survey, interviews, and focus group discussions of lower-income clients in Mexico.  Segments are broken down into formal salaried clients, informal salaried clients, entrepreneurs, and seasonal/agriculture clients.

Emerging Perspectives on Youth Savings (May 2012)
CGAP
Authors: Tanaya Kilara, Alexia Latortue

This presents potential challenges and opportunities in providing youth with savings, from the perspective of policymakers and providers, taking into consideration the life transitions that youth go through and their challenges to accessing financial services. Details a list of providers and their outreach to youth.
(YOUTH)

Three keys to M-PESA’s success: Branding, channel management and pricing (December 2009)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Authors: Ignacio Mas, Amolo Ng’weno
This paper explores how M-PESA was able to build relationships and trust with customers and retail stores, focusing on three aspects of its success: branding to create awareness and build trust; creating a consistent user experience while building out the channel of retail agents; and a pricing and commission structure that focuses on customer willingness to pay and incentives for early adoption. 

Financial Inclusion by Design: AppLab Money Incubator (October 2012)
Author: Olga Morawczynski
This blog talks about innovations in designing demand driven financial services and shares lessons from Grameen Foundation, MTN, and CGAP’s AppLab Money Incubator.

Linking Financial Behaviors to Product Development (November 2011)
CGAP, Microfinance Opportunities  
Authors: Monqiue Cohen, Guy Stuart

Microfinance Opportunities has adapted Portfolios of the Poor’s financial diaries methodology to conduct two studies, one with Opportunity Bank of Malawi and one in Kenya that explores how low-income populations use M-PESA. It argues that the financial diaries methodology can provide useful insights for product development, offering two examples of products that were modified based upon findings. 

The Journey Toward ‘Cash Lite’ : Addressing Poverty, Saving Money and Increasing Transparency by Accelerating the Shift to Electronic Payments* (September 2012)
Better than Cash Alliance, Bankable Frontier Associates
Addresses the inconvenience and risks of paying in cash and urges individuals, governments, the private sector, and development organizations to move towards a cash-lite system. It details benefits of switching to electronic payments from multiple aggregated studies. Also includes recommendations for governments, the private sector, and development organizations.
*See also a blog post by Elisabeth Rhyne: The Better Than Cash Alliance Is Out to Create a “Cash Lite” World

Kenya’s Mobile Revolution and the Promise of Mobile Savings* (March 2012)
World Bank
Authors: Gabriel Demombynes, Aaron Thegeya

Based upon data collected in a 2010 survey, this study found that those registered for M-PESA are 32 percent more likely to report having some savings. Despite the wide reach of M-PESA nationally, a limited number of better-off Kenyans use M-KESHO, a savings system. It also discusses the future of mobile savings and implications.

*See also a 2013 blog by Mudita Tiwari and Deepti K.C. on Mobile Payment Systems: What can India Adopt from Kenya’s Success?
*And MicroSave Briefing Note #139, M-Schwari: Market Reactions and Potential Improvements

GSMA Mobile Money for the Unbanked, The Case for Interoperability: Assessing the value that the interconnection of mobile money services would create for customers and operators* (February 2012)
GSMA
Authors: Davidson, N. & Leishman, P.
This examines the case for interoperability (transacting across mobile networks) and if there is demand for interconnecting mobile money. It is concluded that in many markets, few customers will find enough value in transacting across networks if they must pay a premium for it. Regulators are advised against mandating interoperability for the above reason, as it could be cost-prohibitive if mobile operators must raise prices or minimize investment in other areas. Greater interconnection should be strived for, with financial institutions, payment networks, and mobile money services. This discusses added value for customers and operators, as a result of increased interconnection, as well as challenges alluding to why so few countries are interconnected.

*
See also a blog by Kabir Kumar and Michael Tarazi, Interoperability in Branchless Banking and Mobile Money (January 2012)
This blog discusses the inevitability that we are moving towards more interoperable systems, but questions how do we get there? Regulators are challenged with how best to support interoperability without compromising the interests of customers or operators. CGAP suggests a three-pronged framework to think about interoperability: platform-level interconnection, agent level-exclusivity, and customer-level interoperability.

*See also “Expanding the Ecosystem of Mobile Money: Considerations for Interoperability,” and “The Case for Interoperability: Assessing the Value that the Interconnection of Mobile Money Services Would Create for Customers and Operators” in GSMA’s  Mobile Money for the Unbanked Annual Report 2012
This annual report details barriers to effectively reach the underbanked with mobile money, including operational challenges, lack of enabling regulation, a need for further learning to establish best practices, and under-investment. This first section grounds the discussion in market efforts to date to address interoperability. The following section considers the value in interconnecting mobile money wallets, using market data and examples from other industries, and evaluates potential gains and costs for customers and operators.

Integration and Interoperability of Financial Services (July 2012)
MicroSave
Authors: Puneet Chopra, Nitish Narain, Abhay Pareek, Nishant Kumar, Sharad Bangari, Sonal Agarwal, Akhilesh Singh, Ritika Shrivastava

Resulting from a comprehensive research study on the need for integration and interoperability of financial services for the poor, utilizing market research across select urban and rural geographies. The purpose was to understand consumer aspirations and needs, and the challenges from a supply side, policy and regulatory perspective. Includes recommendations for policymakers and regulators, banks, governments, and AMNs; reviews industry standards on alternate banking channels; assesses potential business opportunities for banks and AMNs.  

Financial Capability: What is It, and How Can It Be Created? (2010)
Center for Social Development, Washington University
Author: Margaret S. Sherraden
Proposes an alternative to financial literacy, financial capability, which includes when clients have both the ability and opportunity to act. Addresses how people traditionally acquire financial knowledge and skills through financial socialization, financial education, and financial advice/counseling. It then explains how financial inclusion can only be achieved if financial services are accessible, affordable, appealing, simple, secure, and reliable. Knowledge, skills, and inclusion are linked.  

Bridging the Gap: The Business Case for Financial Capability (March 2012)
Citi Foundation, Monitor Group
Authors: Anamitra Deb, Mike Kubzansky

The result of 90 interviews with organizations working in financial capability, site visits to 6 countries, secondary research, and input from 30 additional stakeholders provides a snapshot of the current state of the field in financial capability and the challenges that the industry faces as it tries to increase financial capability of clients. Most intriguing is its analysis of various financial education models, bringing us a step closer to defining the business case for financial capability.
(Financial capability implementers)

Assessing financial literacy in 12 countries: an OECD/INFE international pilot exercise (October 2011)
OECD
Authors: Atkinson, Adele; Messy, Flore-Anne

Survey that takes into account knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes related to personal finances. This seeks to identify financial literacy levels around the globe and similarities in country strategies. (Policymakers, Academics, financial capability implementers and designers)

Framework for the Development of Financial Literacy Baseline Surveys: A First International Comparative Analysis (December 2009)
OECD
Author: Elaine Kempson
An increasing number of countries are concerned about the levels of financial capability of consumers. In response, many initiatives are being developed, such as national financial capability strategies. This builds on the OECD/INFE by elaborating on their guidelines for national financial literacy surveys and proposing a core set of survey questions.
(Financial capability implementers, policymakers)

Financial Capability Index
Microfinance Opportunities
A tool that measures the level of knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to make informed judgments and effective decisions regarding the use and management of money. Contains a questionnaire to assess participants in three primary areas (including an answer key): behavior around managing money, personal characteristics relating to money management and relationships around money.
 (Sourced from Financial Capability Index)
(Retail providers, Support Organizations, and Policymakers)

Children & Youth as Economic Citizens: Review of Research on Financial Capability, Financial Inclusion, and Financial Education (April 2012)
Child and Youth Finance International (CYFI), Citi Foundation
Authors: Child and Youth Finance International Research Working Group
CYFI’s vision for youth economic citizenship, focusing on financial capability, financial inclusion, and financial education.  Includes a summary of key findings from a literature review of economic citizenship, as it pertains to youth. Literature on financial capability suggests that learning opportunities should coincide with when youth are offered financial tools, and that financial education may increase the use of financial services.
(YOUTH)

Half the World is Unbanked (October 2009)
McKinsey, Financial Access Initiative
Authors: Alberto Chaia, Aparna Dalal, Tony Goland, Maria Jose Gonzalez, Jonathan Morduch, Robert Schiff

As of 2010, half of the world’s population (2.5 billion adults) did not use formal financial services for either saving or borrowing purposes and nearly 90% of this population lives in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. Highlights a significant market opportunity to serve the excluded.

Opportunities and Obstacles to Financial Inclusion (July 2011)
Center for Financial Inclusion
Authors: Elisabeth Rhyne, Anita Gardeva
Based on a survey of 301 industry participants from around the globe, seven key topics were identified and serve as the foundation for Financial Inclusion 2020. These include: technology-enabled business models, addressing customer needs and expanding the product range, credit reporting, client protection, financial capability, institutional capacity building, and regulatory frameworks.

Due Diligence: An Impertinent Inquiry into Microfinance (January 2012)
Center for Global Development
Author: David Roodman

This open-book, written publically with input from readers, does a deep analysis of the true impact of microfinance and is meant to serve as a guide for governments, foundations, investors, and private citizens. It highlights the need to move away from a singular focus on microcredit to a comprehensive suite of financial services (including savings and microinsurance) and the value of institution building.

Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty (April 2012)
Innovations for Poverty Action
Authors: Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo

Described as offering “a better path forward” by the Financial Times and “a version of Freakonomics for the poor” by Fast Company, this book describes pioneering work of randomized control trials (RCTs) in development economics. Drawing on work by the Poverty Action Lab and the authors’ 15 years of field research from Chile, India, Kenya, and Indonesia, they illuminate aspects of the poor’s behavior and needs, and how finance can affect their lives.

Latest Findings from Randomized Evaluations of Microfinance (December 2011)
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor, Financial Access Initiative, Innovations for Poverty Action, J-PAL
Authors: Jonathan Bauchet, Cristobal Marshall, Laura Starita, Jeanette Thomas, and Anna Yalouris
Review of randomized control trials (RCTs) used to evaluate impact of microfinance. It suggests that microcredit works for microentrepreneurs who are successful in growing businesses, but not for others.  Despite an industry focus on entrepreneurship at the time, this research confirms that many clients have different uses for loans, e.g. household investments or education for children.

Microfinance for Bankers and Investors (2009)
Author: Elisabeth Rhyne
Demonstrates that providing financial services to the poor is a viable business prospect that allows investors to be socially and financially responsible. Provides the readers with a road map showing where and how businesses can invest in greater financial inclusion, guided by the stories of companies already leading the way. Encourages private businesses to engage in financial inclusion.

Mexico's Prospects for Full Financial Inclusion (September 2009)
Center for Financial Inclusion
A data-rich, in-depth look at Mexico's potential to reach full financial inclusion, using a scorecard that was developed through existing sources. It points out the potential for mainstream financial institutions to reach more excluded populations, including rural populations. Also looks at mobile financial services and partnerships with existing retailers (e.g. gas stations and banks).

A Quick Guide to the Maya Declaration to Financial Inclusion*  (March 2012)
Alliance for Financial Inclusion
Explains what the Maya Declaration is (a global and measurable set of commitments by developing and emerging country policymakers to contribute to greater financial inclusion), its purpose, and steps to support commitments made by member countries.

*See also the 2013 Maya Declaration Progress Report, which includes all institutional commitments.

Financial Inclusion Strategies Reference Framework (June 2012)
World Bank, Mexico G20 Presidency
Builds on the G20’s previous efforts to promote financial inclusion and profiles the following: country models and examples, the work of the G20 Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion and its sub-groups, the Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI), IFC, CGAP, the World Bank, UNCDF, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), and others. It explores financial inclusion strategies, data for strategy design and measurement, and actions that must be undertaken by private and public sector actors.
(Policymakers)

Global Standard Setting Bodies and Financial Inclusion, Insights and lessons from five countries: Brazil, Kenya, Mexico, the Philippines, and South Africa (September 2011)
Alliance for Financial Inclusion, Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion
This AFI study has identified five countries as financial inclusion policy agenda leaders and includes a synthesis of the impact of five standard setting bodies (SSB) on each country’s principles, standards, and guidance. Suggests themes emerging across countries.

G20 Principles for Innovative Financial Inclusion (June 2012)
Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion, Alliance for Financial Inclusion
A set of conditions to spur innovation for financial inclusion while ensuring financial stability and protection of consumers, focusing on the following: leadership and commitment by government; diversity in the range of financial services; technological and institutional innovation; consumer protection; financial empowerment of consumers; cooperation across sectors; knowledge and research to inform evidence-based policies; proportionality of risks and regulations; and key elements of an effective regulatory framework.

Lessons learned for national financial inclusion strategy development (June 2011)
Alliance for Financial Inclusion, Pacific Financial Inclusion Programme
Derived from experiences of the Reserve Bank of Fiji and the Central Bank of the Solomon Islands, this discusses the national strategy development process and key components of national strategies. High-level suggestions for countries that are interested in creating their own national strategies for financial inclusion. 

The MIX Online Database (2011, updated yearly)
The MIX in partnership with MasterCard Foundation, Gates Foundation, CGAP, Citi Foundation, Deutsche Bank, IFAD, Omidyar, Dell Foundation, Ford Foundation
Convenient access to self-reported financial and social performance information covering approximately 2,000 MFIs around the world. Includes analyses by the MIX and allows users to analyze data on their own.

Global Findex* (2011)
Gallup, World Bank
This database includes financial inclusion indicators from 148 countries about how people, including the poor, women, and rural residents - save, borrow, make payments and manage risk.

*See also the Center for Financial Inclusion Data Explorer, featuring over 80 indicators on financial access and demography.

The Progress Out of Poverty Index: A Detailed Analysis of MFI Implementation  (2014)
Multilateral Investment Fund, Member of the Inter-American Development Bank Group
Prepared by: Steve Boucher
A tool that allows MFIs to estimate the rate of poverty of its clients. Provides an in-depth analysis of the implementation and utilization of the PPI by MFIs in Latin America, based on interviews with five MFIs in Peru and Ecuador, as well as interviews with other institutions (e.g. rating agencies, social investors).

G20 Financial Inclusion Indicators
(2013)
World Bank, Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion, Australian Agency for International Development
An aggregate of financial inclusion data, endorsed by the G20 Leaders in September 2013. This contains the G20 Basic Set of Indicators, Global Findex data, and a suite of other data sources, including access, usage and quality of service delivery of financial services. 

Designing a Methodology to Investigate Accessibility and Impact of Financial Inclusion (April 2012)
Social Science Research Network
Authors: Serrao, Manohar Vincent; Sequeira, Aloysius Henry; Hans, Basil V.
Aims to develop a research methodology for measuring the impact of access to financial services by poor and marginalized groups in India. Supply and demand side analysis is conducted to examine the concept of financial inclusion and its initiatives in India, considering what data is needed to measure impacts and develop appropriate policies. Recommendations are provided for enabling financial inclusion and strengthening mechanisms for evaluation. 

Financial Diaries (2007)
Centre for Social Science Research, FinMark Trust, Ford Foundation, Micro Finance Regulatory Council
Authors: Daryl Collins, Louise Taljaard

Addresses the gap of knowledge about how the poor manage their finances. A year-long financial management survey of poor rural and urban households in South Africa. A precursor study to the FinScope.

FinScope
(2011)
FinMark Trust
A nationally representative study of consumers' perceptions on financial services and issues in South Africa, illuminates how consumers source their income and manage their financial lives. This sample covers the entire adult population, rich and poor, urban and rural, in order to create a segmentation of the entire market and to lend perspective to the various market segments. 
(Adapted from FinScope website)


 

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